FLOWERS (Pasque)

South Dakota's State Flower

"That bold bit of life at the edge of the snows" is how South Dakota poet laureate Badger Clark described the state flower in his 1939 poem Pasque Flower.

The pasque flower is a wildflower that reaches eight to 12 inches in height. Each stem has one cup-shaped flower with five to eight petals that range in color from dark lavender to almost white. Silky hairs cover not only the leaves but also the stems and buds. As one of the first flowers to bloom in the spring, it is a reminder of life's springing anew from a wintry death.

Pasque refers to Easter and Passover, and it is around that time of year that the plant blooms. On the prairies and plains of South Dakota, pasque flowers typically bloom in late April and early May. In the Black Hills the wildflower may flower well into May and June. In most cases, by June the flowers and fruits (mature seed pods) are long gone and by the end of July even the leaves are gone - dormant until the following year.

The little lavender flower earned a place in the hearts of American Indians and pioneers before it earned a place in the state's law books.

In a piece of folk-lore written in the Dakota language contained in the North Dakota publication Native Life, a pasque flower speaks as a grandparent addressing grandchildren. The pasque flower tells the grandchildren that she has come out first of all the flower people to show that spring is here and that the buffalo will increase. Then, when all the other flowers, birds, and animals have come out, it is time for her to die. By this example, she shows the grandchildren that they must become old and gray, and pass on to the next land that has been prepared for them by their ancestors. The pasque flower will return again in early springtime, speaking her message to generation after generation.

The Lakota name for the pasque flower is "hoki eekpa," meaning "child's navel." The wildflower has many other names as well, including windflower, prairie crocus, meadow anemone, May flower and Easter flower.

According to information from the South Dakota State Historical Society - State Archives, Lawrence Riggs, a teacher at Peoria School in Hughes County, asked the state legislature that the pasque flower and the motto "I Lead" be adopted as the state floral emblem. In his letter dated February 4, 1903, he also requested that the lesson, "Be first in Love and Peace and Faith in Immortality" be added. and that the flower and motto be given an honored place in the state seal and flag.

The South Dakota Educational Association, which represents teachers, had previously passed a resolution urging the legislature to adopt a floral emblem of the anemone or the pasque flower and the motto, "I Lead."

A bill signed into law on March 5, 1903,by Gov. Charles N. Harreid approved the pasque flower, along with the embllem, "I Lead," as the floral emblem of South Dakota. South Dakota is the only state to have incorporated a motto with its state flower.

 Information provided by the South Dakota Historical Society Foundation www.sdhsf.org.


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If you’re a home gardener about to drowned in tomatoes rolling in off the vines and demanding to be consumed before they go bad, hang on. Here comes a life preserver.

I chop up a small bowlful of fresh very ripe tomatoes, add chopped red onion or scallions, minced garlic, chopped fresh basil, and extra-virgin olive oil.  I sometimes add Kalamata olives. I make this dish in the morning and let it set on the kitchen table all day. By evening meal time, the flavors have melded nicely, and I serve it over hot cooked spaghetti noodles and top it with fresh grated parmesan for an easy meal on a hot summer day.

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